Lead a discussion of the benefits of becoming a state versus remaining a territory or protectorate. I warn you that annexation will import the sharpest kind of competition along certain lines. A new constitution was implemented—called the Bayonet Constitution because it was signed by Kalakaua against his wishes—which limited the authority of the King's government, focused power with wealthy white land owners, and eliminated many rights from native Hawaiians. In March of 1897, William McKinley was inaugurated as President of the United States. Native Hawaiians staged mass protest rallies and formed two gender-designated groups to protest the overthrow and prevent annexation.
Give the students the following arguments, taken from the May 17, 1898, Report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs Report on H. It would be far better that Hawaii remain independent and be able to enjoy the advantages of neutrality. Congress, strongly in support of the upcoming annexation push. The overthrow of Lili'uokalani and imposition of the Republic of Hawaii was contrary to the will of the native Hawaiians. The Hui Aloha Aina for Women and the Hui Aloha Aina for Men now organized a mass petition drive. The landholding system changed, and many aspects of traditonal culture were prohibited including teaching the Hawaiian language and performing the native Hula dance.
Soon after, President Benjamin Harrison submitted a treaty to annex the Hawaiian islands to the U. Listening and acting is the way to survival. Press accounts from the Pacific Commercial Advertiser and the Independent estimate the crowd between 800-3,000. On July 12, 1898, the Joint Resolution passed and the Hawaiian islands were officially annexed by the United States. Secretary of State Walter Q. In 1893 the last monarch of Hawaii, Queen Lili'uokalani, was overthrown by party of businessmen, who then imposed a provisional government.
The 1897 Petition by the Hawaiian Patriotic League stands as evidence that the native Hawaiian people objected to annexation, but because the interests of the businessmen won out, over the coming decades most historians who wrote the history of Hawaii emphasized events as told by the Provisional Government and largely neglected the struggle of the Native Hawaiians. Under the subsequent administration of President William McKinley, a new treaty of annexation was signed and sent on June 16, 1897, to the U. In 1887, the struggle for control of Hawaii was at its height as David Kalakaua was elected to the Hawaiian throne. Schamel is an archivist in the Center for Legislative Archives at the National Archives. Follow with these questions: When was Hawaii admitted? Why do you suppose it was written in two languages? Divide the class into groups of three and ask them to compile the names and dates of the land acquisitions of the United States and the methods by which they were added.
When William McKinley won the presidential election in November 1896, the question of Hawaii's annexation to the U. The provisional government proclaimed Hawaii a republic in 1894, and soon it was recognized by the United States. The leaders of the revolt were imprisoned along with Queen Lili'uokalani who was jailed for failing to put down the revolt. Among the native Hawaiians especially the feeling is that it is rather an honor to see one's name attached to a petition, and that is would be unfriendly to refuse and sign a petition, an act which costs nothing. For information about the mission and functions of the National Archives, check the agency's web site at. Secretary of State Walter Q. Boston, the Committee on Annexation overthrew Queen Lili'uokalani in a bloodless coup on January 17, 1893 and established a revolutionary regime.
Even elements of daily life felt the social and economic impact of the white planters, missionaries and businessmen. On January 5, 1895, the protests took the form of an armed attempt to derail the annexation. Names on the petition were from loyal subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom many of which were Asian because of the Chinese exclusion acts of 1882 that threatened the voting rights of the Asian population in the Hawaiian Kingdom. This event occurred just 17 years after Captain James Cook, the first European explorer to set foot on Hawaii, visited the islands in 1778. Shortly into his presidency, Cleveland appointed James Blount as a special investigator to investigate the events in the Hawaiian Islands.
The petition, clearly marked Petition Against Annexation and written in both the Hawaiian and English languages, was signed by 21,269 native Hawaiian people, or more than half the 39,000 native Hawaiians and mixed-blood persons reported by the Hawaiian Commission in its census for the same year. However, the actions of the white businesspeople driven by their monetary goals were stronger than the actions of the native Hawaiian people with their cultural goals. The delegation and Lili'oukalani met Senator George Hoar, chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations on the following day, and on December 9, with the delegates present, Senator Hoar read the text of the petition to the Senate. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1984. For information about the mission and functions of the National Archives, check the agencys website at www. What type of document is it? The documents are not included in this text-only version.
The next day, the delegates met with Secretary of State John Sherman and submitted a formal statement protesting the annexation to him. Ask students to choose an individual or group to research and report on in a short essay. Burgess Sources for the above taken from U. Minister to Hawaii and Marines from the U. Allow time for some of the students to read their papers aloud in class. On February 27, 1898, only forty-six senators voted for annexation, less than the two-thirds majority needed for approval.
Senator, and you will hear it with no uncertain tones ring out from Niihau to Hawaii - 'Independence now and forever. One was the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina, loosely translated as the Hawaiian Patriotic League, and the other was its female counterpart, the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina o Na Wahine. Between September 11 and October 2, 1897, the two groups collected petition signatures at public meetings held on each of the five principal islands of Hawaii. Why did the United States want to add the lands? Minister Albert Willis by Her Majesty Queen Lili'uokalani against the formation of the Republic of Hawai'i, June 20, 1894. The Committee immediately proclaimed itself to be the Provisional Government. What conflicts arose over the acquisition? Blount found that Minister Stevens had acted improperly and ordered that the American flag be lowered from Hawaiian government buildings.
Include American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia although this land was already part of the United States in the discussion. The story of the annexation is a story of conflicting goals as the white businessmen struggled to obtain favorable trade conditions and native Hawaiians sought to protect their cultural heritage and maintain a national identity. The Hui Aloha Aina for Women and the Hui Aloha Aina for Men now organized a mass petition drive. Though several attempts were made to achieve statehood, Hawaiʻi remained a territory for sixty years. Courtesy of the and Records Administration. What do you suppose were some of the objections to admitting Hawaii? What do you suppose are the effects of petitions such as this one? President William McKinley wanted the United States to annex Hawaii.