This can lead to policy paralysis. The single chamber is responsible for all legislative matters. Another advantage accruing from this ingredient in the constitution of the senate, is the additional impediment it must prove against improper acts of legislation. In the United States, for instance, the most populous and least populous state have the same number of senators. Hence, they are to be made without any bias and with proper care and consideration. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have often adopted it, and the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Bicameralism or bicameral legislature has certain pros and cons. Membership is not fixed and decreases only on the death of a life peer. In his book on political issues, Do I Stand Alone? Members of France's and Ireland's are chosen by , the latter's consisting of members of the lower house, local councillors, the , and graduates of selected universities, while the Netherlands' is chosen by members of provincial assemblies which, in turn, are directly elected. In 1958, when the Legislative Council was formed, it became bicameral until 1 June 1985 when it was abolished. The remaining twenty-two states and the of and have unicameral legislature. It doubles the security to the people, by requiring the concurrence of two distinct bodies in schemes of usurpation or perfidy, where the ambition or corruption of one, would otherwise be sufficient.
In order to form an accurate judgment on both these points, it will be proper to enquire into the purposes which are to be answered by a senate; and in order to ascertain these it will be necessary to review the inconveniencies which a republic must suffer from the want of such an institution. In the United States, for example, the House of Representatives starts appropriations bills, while the Senate confirms presidential appointments and approves foreign policy decisions. There are a total of 76 senators: 12 senators are elected from each of the six regardless of population and two from each of the two autonomous internal territories the and the. Policy Deadlocks While neither the upper house nor the lower house gets a free run to pass any laws they feel like and a balance is attained by compelling the houses to reach a consensus, this can lead to policy deadlocks. Thus, bicameralism may mean discord, division and distortion of popular wall. In Spain the functions as a de facto territorial-based upper house, and there has been some pressure from the to reform it into a strictly territorial chamber.
Examples on this subject might be cited without number; and from proceedings within the United States, as well as from the history of other nations. Most democracies of the world have separation of powers. For instance, the Rajya Sabha in India has 12 nominated members with repute in the fields of art, science, literature and social service. All the more was this needed in a republican government where predominance of the legislature, and of the popular house within the legislature, might be taken for granted. For instance, the Rajya Sabha in India has 12 nominated members with special achievement in the fields of art, science, literature and social service. This continued until March 2007 when the Legislative Council was reestablished and elections were held for its seats.
Arguments of justice and expediency had clashed for long, with no resolution Continental Congress, nos. No Satisfactory Method for the Composition of Second Chamber- Further, no satisfactory method has yet been devised for constituting a second chamber. Although I understand some of the disadvantages of a bicameral legislature, I really think that the advantages outweigh them. They are to be represented in the national legislature. Because of legislative gridlock in 2009, former Congressman , a prospective candidate for governor, has proposed that adopt unicameralism. If it agrees with the Representative House, it will be superfluous, if it disagrees, mischievous. The House of Peoples has 58 members, 17 delegates from among each of the constituent peoples of the Federation, and 7 delegates from among the other peoples.
. Certain legislation, however, must be approved by both Houses and can't be forced through by the Commons under the Parliament Act. The Philippine government's decision-making process, relative to the United States, is more rigid, highly centralised, much slower and susceptible to political gridlock. The idea was to have the Senate be wealthier and wiser. Federal Council National Council All of the parliaments are unicameral.
In a unicameral legislature, it is quite possible that some people or some sections will not have true representation and may be excluded from the focuses of lawmakers. Bicameralism is an essential and defining feature of the classical notion of mixed government. Its primary advantage over unicameralism is the checks and balances that comes with necessitating consent from both houses for a law to be passed. The Council claimed that this would protect against the '', expressing concerns that without a system of checks and balances extremists would use the single chamber parliaments to restrict the rights of groups. In the United States, for example, all of the state legislatures except Nebraska's are also bicameral.
The houses in a bicameral legislature are typically elected or selected through different processes, allowing for more versatility and forms of representation. The question of what constituted a fair representation of states varying wildly in territory and numbers was as old as union itself. The European Union is not considered a country nor a state, but it enjoys the power to address national Governments in many areas. In any event, the proposed Senate gave promise of being the locus of precisely those quasi-aristocratic virtues that republican principles would admit and republican government--if it were to endure--would require. Instead of having one legislative, the whole apparatus is divided into an upper house and a lower house. If indeed it be right that among a people thoroughly incorporated into one nation, every district ought to have a proportional share in the government; and that among independent and sovereign states bound together by a simple league, the parties however unequal in size, ought to have an equal share in the common councils, it does not appear to be without some reason, that in a compound republic partaking both of the national and federal character, the government ought to be founded on a mixture of the principles of proportional and equal representation. Wasting time and resources in both houses without much business can lead to wasting funds, which is essentially taxpayer money.