Participants of the Congress of Vienna: 1. The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle 1818 ended the occupation of France. This set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the restoration of the French monarchy for the second time, and the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821. Napoleon's abdication in April 1814 was followed by a preliminary settlement, the first treaty of Paris, which restored the Bourbon monarchy, returned most of 's colonies, allowed her the boundaries of 1792, and approved the union of and Holland. The Treaty of Chaumont united the powers to defeat Napoleon and became the cornerstone of the Concert of Europe, which formed the balance of power for the next two decades.
The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe. These diverse revolutionary movements were in opposition to the conservative agenda of the Congress of Vienna and marked a major challenge to its vision for a stable Europe. The revolutionary wave began in France in February and immediately spread to most of Europe and parts of Latin America. A German Confederation dominated by Austria and, to a lesser extent, Prussia, but with Russian support for such middle-sized states as W ürttemberg, replaced the defunct. The latter is connected to the creation of a metropolitan chapter, as a symbolic substitute for a bishop.
Due to diplomatic skill France, too, was allowed to take part in decision making. The chief representatives included Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereigh of ; his ally, Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar von Metternich of ; F ürst Karl August von Hardenberg of ; and Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-P érigord, Prince de B én évent of France. Charles Pictet de Rochemont from Geneva played a prominent role. The Bourbons were restored in Spain. The Quadruple Alliance, by contrast, was a standard treaty and the four Great Powers did not invite any of their allies to sign it. This allowed the Viennese to act as middlemen in trade, so that Vienna soon created a network of far-reaching trade relations, particularly along the basin and to , and to become one of the most important cities in the.
It renewed the use of the Congress System, which advanced European international relations. By January 1815 Alexander was ready to compromise, an attitude strengthened by Napoleon's temporary return to power in March. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. Territorial Changes The Final Act, embodying all the separate treaties, was signed on June 9, 1815, a few days before the Battle of Waterloo. Russia denounced this claim, since it claimed to be the protector of all Eastern Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
The Black Sea was demilitarized and an international commission was set up to guarantee freedom of commerce and navigation on the Danube River. The new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium. France lost all its recent conquests, while Prussia, Austria, and Russia made major territorial gains. However, this stability was achieved at the price of personal freedom of the population of the major European powers. Vienna 1814; How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War, and Peace at the Congress of Vienna.
Austria was represented by Prince Klemens von Metternich, the Foreign Minister, and by his deputy, Baron Johann von Wessenberg. At the peak of his influence in early 1814, Alexander directed the non-punitive occupation of Paris and the exile of to Elba. The Congress, therefore, did nothing to better the status of the Jews but, in effect, only worsened their position in many places. A large United Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed for the Prince of Orange, including both the old United Provinces and the formerly Austrian-ruled territories in the Southern Netherlands. The first municipal elections were held in November 1945. Russia gained parts of Poland.
When the tsar heard of the secret treaty he agreed to a compromise that satisfied all parties on 24 October 1815. The city, protected by medieval walls, only barely withstood the attacks, until and an early winter forced the Turks to retreat. Klemens von Metternich - the era of Biedermeier Count Klemens von Metternich was souvereign to Austrian emperor Franz I and one of the main diplomats of the Viennese Congress. After the great flood of 1830, was frequently considered. It thus reaffirmed the traditional top-down view of society, where power stemmed from God to the people and not from the people to their sovereign. Congress of Paris: Diplomats at the Congress of Paris, 1856, settling the Crimean War; painting by Edouard Louis Dubufe.
During the on November 9, 1938, the , the Jewish centres of not only religious, but also social life, were destroyed. Much debate has occurred among historians as to which treaty was more influential in the development of international relations in Europe in the two decades following the end of the Napoleonic Wars. This meant that the first conference in 1818 dealt with remaining issues of the French wars, but after that, meetings were arranged on an ad hoc basis to address specific threats such as those posed by revolutions. The rest of the 19th century was marked by more revolutionary fervor, more war, and the rise of nationalism. At the general session of the Congress in May 1815, the opposition to Jewish civic equality grew, despite favorable proposals by Austria and Prussia. Metternich was one of main architects of the balance of power in Europe and approached the matter from a perspective of conservatism.
The project has since been redesigned. The former Austrian Netherlands was united with the former United Provinces as the kingdom of the Netherlands, under the house of Orange. Under Emperor , the city administration was modernized in 1783: officials in charge of only the city were introduced, and the was created. It was an integral part in what became known as the , in which the liberties and civil rights associated with the and were de-emphasized, so that a fair balance of power, peace and stability, might be achieved. In addition, there were representatives of cities, corporations, religious organizations for instance, abbeys , and special interest groups e.