Lastly, transcription is undertaken i. When the whole data collection is over a final and a thorough check up is made. Thus, for electronic questionnaires,rules can be entered which prevent inconsistentresponses from ever being stored in thefile used for data analysis. It refers to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations. Coding of structured questions is relatively simple, since the response options are predetermined.
Quantitative methods are cheaper to apply and they can be applied within shorter duration of time compared to qualitative methods. The present an overall view of findings in a simpler way. Research methodology is important because researcher should not only know about the problem but also about the method of solving it. This is to say that as the temperature goes up, hot chocolate sales tend to go down. It requires a good deal of knowledge, imagination, experience, and expertise.
It provides training in choosing methods materials, scientific tools and techniques relevant for the solution of the problem. Such ambiguity is impossible with anelectronic questionnaire. Normally, following format is suggested as a basic outline, which has sufficient flexibly to meet the most situations. One such standard method is to code in the margin with a colored pencil. Main body or text — The main text must contain an introduction, summary of findings, main report and conclusion. By convention, the dependent variable is presented in the rows and the independent variable in the columns.
Coding is done on the basis of the instructions given in the codebook. No responses to specific questions —The pattern of responses may indicate that the respondent did not understand or follow the instructions. In analytical research, a researcher has to avail data which already exists and has to make an accurate evaluation. No matter how well a researcher designs the study, there always exists a degree of error in the results. Occasionally, the investigator makes a mistake and records and impossible answer.
This means that for the most part, if a person is tall, they are likely to have a large shoe size, and conversely, if they are short, they are likely to have a smaller shoe size. Poor quality data typically result in incorrect and unreliable data mining results. Statistical data distribution: In this type of data distribution, some measure of average is found out of a sample of respondents. Table may be divided into: i Frequency tables, ii Response tables, iii Contingency tables, iv Uni-variate tables, v Bi-variate tables, vi Statistical table and vii Time series tables. The coding frame is an outline of what is coded and how it is to be coded. If they fail to, they are misleading and should not be accepted. Therefore, application of appropriate set of criteria to select secondary data to be used in the study plays an important role in terms of increasing the levels of.
Format depends on several relevant variables. Once the data has been entered, it is crucial that the researcher check the data for accuracy. Statistical distributions Frequency distribution: In social science research, frequency distribution is very common. For open-ended questions, however, post-coding is necessary. A table should not merely repeat information covered in the text. Statistical Significance Researchers cannot simply conclude that there is a difference between two groups in a well-constructed study.
The former is the way of making many more than two groups on the basis of some quality or attributes while the latter is the classification into two groups on the basis of presence or absence of a certain quality. Care should be taken in editing re-arranging answers to open-ended questions. They can tell the researcher the central tendency of the variable, meaning the average score of a participant on a given study measure. Correlation Correlation is one of the most often used and most often misused kinds of descriptive statistics. These categories should be appropriate to the research problem, exhaustive of the data, mutually exclusive and uni — directional Since the coding eliminates much of information in the raw data, it is important that researchers design category sets carefully in order to utilize the available data more fully.
Primary Data Collection Methods Primary data collection methods can be divided into two groups: quantitative and qualitative. These criteria include, but not limited to date of publication, credential of the author, reliability of the source, quality of discussions, depth of analyses, the extent of contribution of the text to the development of the research area etc. Tabulation of data: After editing, which ensures that the information on the schedule is accurate and categorized in a suitable form, the data are put together in some kinds of tables and may also undergo some other forms of statistical analysis. These questionnaires may be incomplete, instructions not followed, little variance, missing pages, past cutoff date or respondent not qualified. Some times , a respondent mayaccidentally draw a circle that overlaps twonumbers. This method is particularly easy to do when using numerical data because the researcher can simply use the database program to sum the columns of the spreadsheet and then look for differences in the totals. Classification becomes necessary when there is a diversity in the data collected for meaningless for meaningful presentation and analysis.
Your choice between quantitative or qualitative methods of data collection depends on the area of your research and the nature of research aims and objectives. For example, in the above age distribution groups like 18-20, 21-22 etc. Coding is done by using a code book, code sheet, and a computer card. That is, coding frame is a set of explicit rules and conventions that are used to base classification of observations variable into values which are which are transformed into numbers. Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Additionally, descriptive statistics can be used to tell the researcher the frequency with which certain responses or scores arise on a given study measure. Clarify responses that are logically orconceptually inconsistent.
It should be written systematically and bound carefully. Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics describe but do not draw conclusions about the data. End Matter — The end matter of the report must contain an appendices in respect of all technical terms and data used in the report and must end with a bibliography. All this up-front work necessitates and lot of time and effort. Inferential statistics are necessary to draw conclusions of this kind. Are most of them very close to it or is there a wide range of variation? The tabular form of such classification is known as statistical series, which may be inclusive or exclusive. Inferential statistics seek to generalize beyond the data in the study to find patterns that ostensibly exist in the target population.