The star of Bethlehem was attached to a cord ; the manger was built near the altar ; and a statue represented the Christ. Specimens of the Pre-Shaksperean Drama. Unfortunately, Kinemacolor's parent company in Britain collapsed right after release of the movie, and Arvidson's estranged husband bought out the California operations of Kinemacolor, which included rights to their United States film releases. Music, costume, action, three dramatic essentials, were adopted by the Church, and the service became more ornate, while its spirit re- mained unchanged. A final narrator enters to explain to the audience that all should heed the lessons of Everyman: that everything in life is fleeting, with the exception of acts of kindness and charity. Five-wits: Everyman, that is the best that ye can do: God will you to salvation bring, For priesthood exceedeth all other things; To us Holy Scripture they do teach. Alas, that ever I was bore! We find abstractions walking across the narrow pageants, and rolling forth long disquisitions on the evils of life of which they them- selves are the symbolical types.
Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. I have the loved, and had grete pleasure All my lyfe dayes on good and treasure. Above all is evident the effort to enlarge the texts more and more, at first merely by means of adding, mosaic fashion, pieces from the Gospels or from Church songs, but afterward by including pieces, which in prose or verse were especially composed for the purpose. These were to await their turn to be thrown into the flames for their obstinancy in not believing in Nebuchadnezzar's idols. Full unredy I am suche rekenynge to gyve.
Spirit of God as distinct from God probably the Holy Ghost? But one thynge I warne you, by saint Anne, As for me, ye shall go alone. The following is quoted from a letter written by the husband of Edith Wynne Matthison Charles Rann Kennedy, Esquire outlining the method by which his wife arrived at her perfect interpretation of the role of Everyman. What was done was done, and would serve the pur- pose of another writer, provided a continuous picture was shown, or an uninterrupted story told. Morality plays were popular in 15th- and 16th-century Europe. Good- Deeds: Everyman, will you wear it for your heal? It will be seen that despite the national character- istics infused into the drama, the playwrights still re- mained in touch with the Church, and continued to trace, however freely, the same stories that formed the basis of the religious drama at its beginning.
Now have I no maner of company To helpe me in my journey, and me to kepe, And also my wrytynge is full unredy. Everyman, thou art mad; thou hast thou wits five, And here on earth will not amend thy life, For suddenly I do come. No more natural, no more crafty scene, is to be met with than that in which Satan obtains control over Eve ; nothing more human can be found than the rapid dialogue between Cain and Abel, in which the latter hears of his approaching death. Shall I have no company fro this vale terestryall Of myne acqueynte that way me to lede? I gyve the no respyte ; come hens and not tary. Maitland and Mary Bate- son.
Good-Deeds: And when he hath brought thee there, Where thou shalt heal thee of thy smart, Then go with your reckoning and your Good-Deeds together For to make you joyful at heart Before the blessed Trinity. Gildas de Ruys, in Lower Brittany, it is said that he found the country wild; the inhabitants half-barbarous, and speaking a lan- guage unintelligible to him ; the monks violent, un- ruly, and dissolute, openly living with concubines; the lands of the monastery subjected to intolerable burdens by the neighboring lord; and the monks in poverty and discontent. While the tone of opposition was strong, it was only the opposition of the religious spirit of the Church to a coarse and popular spirit which was be- coming manifestly more imminent. Scholars are now well agreed that the sources of the modern drama are not to be found in the theatres of Greece and of Rome. On the battle-field, in the castle, upon the street they found their audiences, and were showered with gifts and flattered with the deepest attention. What, and I to Felawshyp thereof spake, 21 And shewed hym of this sodeyne chaunce! Everyman receives the Last Sacrament and sets out on his journey with these companions. His Good Deeds suggests him to take advice from his Knowledge.
Gramercy, Good Dedes, now may I true f rendes se ; They have forsaken me everychone ; I loved them better than my Good Dedes alone ; Knowlege, wyll ye forsake me also? After his scourging, Everyman is absolved of his sins, and as a result, Good Deeds becomes strong enough to accompany Everyman on his journey with Death. Good-Deeds: Everyman, I have understanding That ye be summoned account to make Before Messias, of Jerusalem King; And if you do by me that journey what you will I take. Syr, I must nedes knowe your hevynesse ; I have pyte to se you in ony dystresse. Incensed, they spread evil in- fluences among the people and evil reports concerning the Church among the poor. Skot reads And tourne to erth and there to slepe. If there were nothing more in the Mystery plays than mere interest in local atmosphere, rather than in the work- manship of the playwright, we could not help but admire the stupendous effort of these medieval arti- sans to present graphically and appropriately the story of the Bible. The jongleurs, as these outcasts were sometimes called, were an ancient class.
The plays reveal a double picture : the one, a spec- tacular scene from the Bible; the other, a reflex of the life of the people themselves. Ye, I have you ferre ynoughe conveyde. PlotEveryman, English morality play written anonymously in the late 15th century. Now, gentyll Deth, spare me tyll to morowe, That I may amende me With good advysement! There was a place for the Crucifix and one for the tomb; there was a jail for the prisoners, and a heaven and a hell. The present editor is alone responsible for de- cisions as to changes in readings and punctua- tions. Wheder ye have loved me or no, By saynt John, I wyll not with the go. I wyll gyve her leve to helpe you in that journeye, If that you and she may agree.
Everyman, loke your penaunce that ye fulfyll, What payne that ever it to you be ; And Knowlege 61 shall gyve you counseyll at wyll, How your accounte ye shall make clerely. Ye speke lyke a good f rende, I byleve you well ; I shall deserve it, and I maye. Music that had a vital connection with the service continued its growth; but the dramatist, through the increased dramatic instinct to write plays for their special dramatic value, evidently real- ized the importance of speech in the development of character. Now hath he suffred that we all shall endure, The good dedes shall make all sure. And I Strengthe wyll by you stande in dystres, Though thou wolde in batayle fyght on the grounde.
Therfore fare well and have good daye. In so far as actors observe these restrictions, there is no sin in assisting them, and it is only just, moreover, to pay them for their services. Five- wits: I trust to God no such may we find; Therefore let us priesthood honour, And follow their doctrine for our souls succour; We be their sheep, and they shepherds be By whom we all be kept in surety. Everyman: Alas, shall I have no longer respite? Dodsley reads Now Jesus Christ be your alder speed. Strength: And I, Strength, will by you stand in distress, Though thou would be battle fight on the ground,. Shall we all feche her in? Also in the oldest French play of Adam, the pro- phets are told in the stage directions to remain out of sight till the time for their Dart is at hand. These were united by some new hand, with a visible line of joining, and placed further in a Herod drama, which in its turn led the way to The Massacre of the Innocents.
At last he recalls his Good Deeds. Like previous characters, these entities promise to stay by his side. Nicholas called jeu; Rutebeufs play, however, called a Miracle. An example of the trope is well illustrated in the following which is taken from Gautier's Hist, de la Poesie Liturg. We see the crowd in Chaucer's Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, a crowd well-nigh level as regards intellect, if not alike as regards rank, and all of them capable of enjoying the same kind of amusement. Film adaptations of the 1901 version of the play appeared in 1913 and 1914, with the 1913 film being presented with an early color two-process pioneered by.