For an example Emile Durkheim, regarded as the founding father of sociology, used official suicide statistics for his suicide study. Positivists, such as Emile Durkheim 1987 see statistics as a valuable resource for sociologists. The act allows employees of a company the right to form a union and have the union organization represent them through collective bargaining. As with icebergs, a small proportion of crime is visible, but the bulk remains hidden from our view. Later it will consider the use of the research paper within the clinical practice area; and discuss whether the results are beneficial to the nursing profession.
In addition there is a great variety of other data collections using survey methods with personal, postal, or telephone questionnaires to collect information of a kind that can be coded and quantified to produce statistics on a great range of matters: earnings and incomes; trade; illness, health, and usage of the medical services; housing, job change, and migration; household expenditure patterns; the Retail Price Index; national economic accounts; government expenditures; patterns of food consumption and nutrition; any experience as the victim of crime; leisure activities; travel patterns to work, for business, and for leisure; international travel, immigration, and emigration. This is illustrated in Durkheim's study into Suicide, in which through the collection of quantitative data he was able to observe general trends in suicide statistics and link them back to possible causes through this. They only show crimes, which are reported to and recorded by the official agencies such as the police. The second half of the essay looks two types of alternative crime data; victimization surveys and qualitative data. Reporting Crimes Official statistics are based on the information, which the criminal justice agencies collect.
However, some sociologists, such as Barry Hindess, have argued that official statistics on crime, do have serious deficiencies. The obvious disadvantage is that only a fairly narrow range of information lends itself to being collected through such procedures. Self-Report studies in contrast, aim to investigate the characteristics of offenders by getting a sample group to reveal details of offences committed. Self-report studies are extremely useful as they reveal much about the offenders who are not caught or processed by the police. Anderson et al 1994 show that youths who co-operate and are polite to police officers are less likely to be arrested than those regarded as disrespectful. However the positivistic reliance on such statistics as the basis of their sociology has been brought into question by constructivist approaches - interpretive sociology and critical sociology both of which refuse to take the statistics at face value.
As the role of research and statistics are looked into more deeply, we will discuss the different types of variables used, examine independent and dependent variables more closely, and evaluate the characteristics of primary and secondary data as used in research and statistics. By law each head of household must complete a questionnaire that includes family composition, housing occupation, transport and leisure. Many reasons for their use by sociologists when conducting research stems from the fact that they are a form of secondary data; meaning that they are not collected by the sociologist themselves. A usefulness of official statistics is that it is usually collected in a standardised, systematic and scientific way. A government might want to prove how effective their police force is by exaggerating their number of solved cases, or they might want to prove how safe their society is by not reporting all the crimes that are reported.
Steven Box suggests that this data can be interpreted as implying that there is a selective approach to law enforcement, but in reality the working class are not more criminal than the middle class — to any significant extent. Society must first define a behaviour as criminal, but the definition of a criminal act can change over time, and between jurisdictions. Until such time as massive government data-banks are permitted, the only information held by central government agencies is that supplied directly to them by citizens in response either to public enquiries, or to regulations that specify events to be formally recorded in public records and the like. Conflict theories such as marxist and feminist theory, argue that official statistics are neither hard facts or subjective meanings. Official statistics can be produced as a by-product of the normal workings of a government department, but they can also result from research designed specifically to produce them.
Operationalised statistics is the action of giving data a meaning to meet a specific conclusion. Someone is either held in custody or they or not at the time of the population survey which are done weekly! Market research measures your reputation. Each method provides us with particular information, but also has a number of weaknesses, which need to be identified if our picture is to be accurate. Click the image to search 13, 848 official statistics produced by the U. Official statistics also provide data for the whole country. According to Holdaway, the occupational culture of policing, puts great value on action and aggression. Official statistics can be produced as a by-product of the normal workings of a government department, but they can also result from research designed specifically to produce them.
Census data tells us nothing about this. Official Statistics as Social Constructions Official statistics cannot be taken simply at their face value. This is useful because they produce quantitative data which increases its reliability as the data can be compared or contrasted with previous and future statistics. Another disadvantage is that statistics do not always measure what they intend to measure. The Government collects official statistics to use in policy-making. However, that does not mean that the results are accurate.
On the positive side, case studies. It is also the most useful way to find out about victimless crimes such as illegal drug use. So too, was getting arrested. This essay will initially present the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative research and briefly quantitative research. This is because, only the state can afford to conduct large scale surveys and have the power to make it mandatory for citizens to provide information like a birth. Theories like functionalism have used official statistics to develop theories to explain patterns in the official. Unofficial measurements, just like official crime statistics, also have their own strengths and weaknesses.
Also, these statistics help inform government policy. What is considered criminal or deviant is culturally determined. The most common types of variables are quantitative or qualitative. Official statistics are not always produced in a useful form, making them harder for a sociologist to analyse and draw any trends and patterns from. By law each head of household must complete a questionnaire that includes family composition, housing occupation, transport and leisure.