Raz helpfully distinguishes among three ways in which the relation between consent and legitimate political authority may be understood 1995: 356 : i consent of those governed is a necessary condition for the legitimacy of political authority; ii consent is not directly a condition for legitimacy, but the conditions for the legitimacy of authority are such that only political authority that enjoys the consent of those governed can meet them; iii the conditions of legitimate political authority are such that those governed by that authority are under an obligation to consent. However, if prisons itself were to be studied, many practical issues may arise. There was also traditional authority in tribal societies of all countries. Versions of ii appeal to those who reject actual consent as a basis for legitimacy, as they only regard consent given under ideal conditions as binding. But this ability may not be legitimate. Power is not something which is permanently fixed. These institutions are set up to handle certain issues in similar fashion as national political agencies would.
Other characters misuse their positions of power over certain individuals for personal gain such as love and for wealth and land. If the evidence is accepted, the outcome will be affected and the person who introduced it has exerted political influence. Like a judge with his black gown or a policeman with his uniform. Whatever the authority wants to do it must have legal sanction. Insofar as legitimacy, understood normatively, defines which political institutions and which decisions made within them are acceptable, and, in some cases, what kind of obligations people who are governed by these institutions incur, there is the question what grounds this normativity. With increase in both parameters, cost of goods will not remain the same and consequently people will have to shell out more money for the same goods.
He gets his authority from the higher authorities. Power is related to taking of decisions and for the implementation of those decisions. Superiors, he states, feel that they have a right to issue commands; subordinates perceive an obligation to obey. In Pakistan, there was military dictatorship of Zia-ul-Haq. . It is subject to change and it has source.
Words: 874 - Pages: 4. On some views, even legitimate authority is not sufficient to create political obligations. In their view, the legitimacy of political institutions and the decisions made within them depends on how closely they approximate the ideal egalitarian distribution. Janet was given the authority to act in Hals name when he gave her authority to order supplies. Political authority specifies the governing authority and defines the manner the power is to be exercised. Let me briefly mention other important coercion-based interpretations. In the above essay it is evident how: power, legitimacy and authority affect different societies and if implemented how they can bring change according to the theories.
In his view, while justice and legitimacy are related—they draw on the same set of political values—they have different domains and legitimacy makes weaker demands than justice 1993: 225; 1995: 175ff. Though Deutsch defines the concept in the background of international politics, its relevance to national politics is, however, undeniable. A person may be affected in his action by the introduction of well presented new evidence, though the only consequence of ignoring it may be to appear unreasonable. Words: 1737 - Pages: 7. According to arguments of this kind, some ideal of good outcomes, however defined, forms the standard that determines political legitimacy. Words: 307 - Pages: 2.
Just like beauty lies in the eyes of beholder, Legitimacy lies in the eyes of beholder. On a deliberative account of democracy, legitimacy depends, at least in part, on the process of public deliberation Manin 1987, Bohman 1996. While political authority thus pre-exists in the state of nature, legitimacy is a concept that is specific to the civil state. The solution to this problem is a social contract that transfers political authority to a civil state that can realize and secure the natural law. If it is not backed by law, it is illegitimate power.
The military rulers demand obligation from citizens though he has not that authority. Those who link political legitimacy to the problem of justifying authority tend to think of political coercion as only a means that legitimate states may use to secure their authority. Rational proceduralist conceptions of democratic legitimacy add conditions that refer to the quality of outcomes to those that apply to the procedural properties of democratic decision-making. They can maintain order in the society by sheer use of force and coercion but stability and peace can only be achieved through willing compliance otherwise chaos would follow. Behind every act or decision of the authority there shall be approval of law. Note that even though legitimate authority is defined as a special case of effective authority, only the former is appropriately described as a serving its subjects. As is well known, Weber distinguishes among three main sources of legitimacy—understood as the acceptance both of authority and of the need to obey its commands.
In response to the second worry, Christiano 2015 argues that a human right to democracy is compatible with a right to self-determination and that, properly understood, the right to self-determination presupposes the human right to democracy. The relation that I will be deriving is between her theory of power, authority and violence. First, how should legitimacy be defined? Expectation to give unquestioning obedience is wrong as it threatens reason — Mill — intellectual diversity. It is because power implies ability to influence or control others or to get things done by others. Public reason should involve only political values and be independent of—potentially controversial—comprehensive moral or religious doctrines of the good.
The entitlement to use coercion distinguishes such minimally legitimate political authority from a mere use of power. In any capitalist society there are several classes, both major and minor, and each class strives for the realisation of its own interests which are generally economic. It may be that the person has been licensed to do the job or take an action. The associated global institutions may include both global rules e. In other words, there is an unequal distribution of power like an unequal distribution of wealth. Patrimonial government is related to this model, but is slightly different.