Functional specialists are assigned to given projects horizontal structure. Storing 1 piece of data a datum in multiple addresses blurred the line somewhat. Discuss each of these components. Structure is composed of three components: complexity, formalization and centralization. This applies to all levels of the entire organization, including the managers. Ask the participants for examples of situations where a matrix structure may be best. A chart showing clearly the line of authority and of responsibility of each individual in an organization will go far toward removing many inter-departmental jealousies.
In contrast, functional departmentalization has the strength of: · easier communication with sub-units; · application of higher technical knowledge for solving problems; · greater group and professional identification; · less duplication of staff activities; · higher product quality; and · increased organizational efficiency Filley, 1978. It is through division of work specialization can be achieved which results in effective organization. Scalar chain is a chain of all supervisors from the top management to the person working in the lowest rank. The allocation of work will also help in fixing responsibility of various individuals. Communication is very important in an agricultural research organization.
The person in charge finds it difficult to supervise all the activities efficiently. Driving this continual push into new markets has resulted in a 10-fold increase in revenue, and an average 27% compounded annual growth rate over this period. Since this is not always desirable or possible, employees could also relate with each other on a 'gang plank. Michigan Business Review, 15 3 :. Such a design is suitable for high technology and high growth organizations where an arranged and inflexible structure may be a handicap.
Centralization implies the concentration of decision making authority at the top management executive board. The check Ö indicates that the project manager for Project A was drawn from the Virology Department. When that happens, chaos and organizational paralysis can result until the true successor arrives on the scene. It overloads the executive with pressing activities so that long-range planning and policy formulation are often neglected. True, the chief cannot delegate any one of these functions to a general staff person, but he can often delegate parts of each of them.
Remuneration Motivation and productivity are close to one another as far as the smooth running of an organization is concerned. After all, this authority breaks the unity of command principle by having individuals report to two bosses. Administrative employees are considered staff, and their main function is to support and provide help to scientists to achieve organizational goals It is the responsibility of the manager to make proper and effective use of staff through their supportive functions. Technical goals refer to how well work is done, while project goals relate to issues such as type of work to be done and its costs. So it is called line organisation. Functional officers or divisions are often reluctant to release personnel and other resources to projects in other divisions. Coordination is achieved through hierarchy of authority.
It includes two basic decisions pertaining to: i which units or groups should be placed together; and ii the patterns of relationships, information networks and communication Anderson, 1988. This organization is a vertical structure where one person delegates authority to his subordinate and who in turn delegates to his subordinate and so on. A scalar chain of command facilitates work flow in an organization which helps in achievement of effective results. The staff may be specialized, general or organizational Anderson, 1988. Another way of departmentalizing an institute is by commodity and production areas.
He has to perform a limited number of functions. The department head may also give the assistant the authority to act, such as the right to sign off on expense reports or memos. It leads to the introduction of a new line of a authority. Leavitt 1962 defines it as a specific configuration of structure, people, task and techniques. In other words, authority and responsibility go together and they are two sides of the same coin. This -related article is a. Here experience is the best guide to establishing rules and procedures.
The staff services provides a training ground for the different positions. The structure of an organization is the manner in which various sub-units are arranged and inter-related. Departmentalization is the process of grouping different types of functions and activities of the organization. They do not exchange instructions with each other. As organizations increase in size and diversify, functional departmentalization may not be very effective. Allen has defined line and staff organization as follows.