Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. Theory Y assumes that employees are happy to work and will take on additional duties without being forced to. The underlying idea with Theory X management style is that humans are inherently lazy and will only work if the manager is forcing them to work. Due to these assumptions, Theory X concludes the typical workforce operates more efficiently under a hands-on approach to management. But however, the theory Y yields better results than the theory X, how? The employees must be persuaded, rewarded, motivated, punished, controlled to get the work completed. Because managers and supervisors are in almost complete control of the work, this produces a more systematic and uniform product or work flow. Theory Y has its fundamental concern on the satisfaction of employees.
These orientations meant that they were willing to wait for long-term feedback from a research project that might take years to complete. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. And because they had different need patterns along these dimensions, both groups were highly motivated by achieving competence from quite different activities and settings. Tailoring the approach of your management team to the needs and motivation levels of various departments is a strategy that should pay off in the long run. Theory Y Characteristics Now that you know the difference between Theory X and Theory Y managers, let's go a little deeper into the characteristics of a Theory Y manager. Nevertheless, Theory Z essentially advocates a combination of all that's best about theory Y and modern Japanese management, which places a large amount of freedom and trust with workers, and assumes that workers have a strong loyalty and interest in team-working and the organisation.
Non-financial rewards are the main motivator for Theory Y employees. To McGregor, a steady supply of motivation seemed more likely to occur under Theory Y management. Theory Y managers and supervisors are sometimes called hands-off managers. This leads to loyalty from team members. Does that influence how you run your business today, and more importantly how you manage your employees? Little to no direction is required. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated.
It uses the participative style of management and assumes that workforce is self-directed and enjoy the work assigned to them, in the accomplishment of organisational objectives. Therefore, these theories are based on the attitude, not attributes. Set your own objectives to meet their organizational aims and agree these with the managers. Later, Theory X has been considered as a negative way of dealing with employees due to the inherent negative aspects of the theory. It is interesting to note that the less successful Carmel laboratory had more of its decisions made at the top. So orientate your your own discussions and dealings with them around results — i.
Major findings The principal findings of the survey are best highlighted by contrasting the highly successful Akron plant and the high-performing Stockton laboratory. Furthermore, most people prefer to be treated this way, so they can avoid responsibility. In Y-Type organizations, people at lower levels of the organization are involved in decision making and have more responsibility. Does effective unit performance result from the task-organization fit or from higher motivation, or perhaps from both? This approach is derived from Fred Fiedler's research over various leadership styles known as the. And this is what we did find. In the end, you will have to make up your own mind on this topic. Theory X Management Theory X assumes that employees are unmotivated, lazy, hate working, and must be supervised constantly throughout the day for work to get done.
While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, it may be the only way available. Theory X and theory Y. Based on these assumptions, it can be deduced that management is held responsible for arranging the resources with the aim of achieving economic and social ends. A close supervision is required on part of managers. While our knowledge in this area is still growing, we are certain that any adequate theory of motivation and organization will have to take account of the contingent relationship between task, organization, and people. User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. These too must fit the task to be performed if the organization is to be effective.
As the name would imply, these two common theories stand in opposition to one another on the point of motivation. By backing off and letting the employees shine, companies in the Theory Y category are usually better off in the end. Equally important, does a less formalized organization always provide a high level of motivation for its members? What are the characteristics of a Theory X manager? It can be difficult for organizations and employees to make life-time employment commitments. In the real world, you will probably get to experience the management styles of many supervisors. McGregor generally believed Theory Y to be the most effective management style. Understanding the Theories : Your management style is strongly influenced by your beliefs and assumptions about what motivates members of your team: If you believe that team members dislike work, you will tend towards an authoritarian style of management; On the other hand, if you assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, you will tend to adopt a more participative style.
An especially useful approach to answering this question is to recognize that an individual has a strong need to master the world around him, including the task that he faces as a member of a work organization. Never threaten or go over their heads if you feel dissatisfied. Two thing come to mind: 1. According to this theory employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. Implementing a system that is too soft could result in an entitled, low-output workforce. Thus situational management style should be used in order to generate optimum results. Therefore, there was less need for individuals to have a say in decisions concerning the work process.
Is your team properly motivated, and what it is that motivates them in the first place? Once those needs have been satisfied, the motivation disappears. On the other hand, if you also have a product assembly line or some other repetitive-task arena, it is likely that the employees in that setting are not particularly driven on their own. Assumptions of Theory Y, in relation to Maslow's hierarchy put an emphasis on employee higher level needs, such as esteem needs and self-actualization. Our answer to these questions is that we do not think there are any single cause-and-effect relationships, but that these factors are mutually interrelated. Management believes that employees enjoy their work.
If properly implemented, such an environment can increase and continually fuel motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher-level personal needs through their jobs. While this sounds appealing, over-permissive managers ultimately find employees working less and less as they experience no negative consequences for doing so. They also perceived the degree of coordination of effort among colleagues to be very high. As a result, the only way that employees can attempt to meet higher-level needs at work is to seek more compensation, so, predictably, they focus on monetary rewards. The essence of managing upwards X theory managers? When an organization does not respond to this, employees will start looking for possibilities to deploy their skills outside their work.