These sources were from fungi, plants, bacteria, animals, etc. Caffeine is a member of the class of compounds organic chemists call alkaloids. Mihordea Motion of Atoms and Molecules lab summary In this lab the standard heat of combustion of magnesium was calculated by using the calorimeter. Then distilled water was added to fill the flask to the volume mark. This solvent should be used only in well-ventilated areas.
Steps 6 and 7 were interchanged, that is, first 10cm³ of 3M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was transferred to a separating funnel to which the distillate was added so that incase the funnel was leaking no distillate would be lost. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of methylene chloride is harmful. Historically, nutmeg has been used as a form of medicine to treat many illnesses ranging from those affecting the nervous system to the digestive system. Hydrolysis Trimyristin Myristic Acid Glycerol Side reaction of myristic acid Experimental Section Table of Chemicals Name Chem Structure Atomic weight Melting point Trimyristin 723. Results: The percent recovery of crude and once recrystallized trimyristin from nutmeg was 0. It settled again and I pipetted it into a 25mL Erlenmeyer flask, through a pressure filtration device plastic pipette with a small hole in the bulb , in order to leave behind as much solid as possible.
Nutmeg is a spice from the ground-up seed of the East Indian nutmeg tree. In the hydrolysis of trimyristin the reaction mixture is heated at about 75° for 45 minutes. Extraction, distillation, recrystallization, and chromatography are used the techniques that are used to isolate and purify chemical compounds from natural sources. The different components can be eliminated by their different solubilities. We do this through a process called extraction. When you complete this, a Thiele tube melting point is apparatus is set up. The Thiele tube is heated by using a Bursen burner.
Trimyristin: Trimyristin accounts for over three quarters of the fixed oil of nutmeg. For this experiment standard solutions of Kool-Aid flavors will be prepared to measure the absorbance at lambda max and plot the results against the concentration of solution to generate a standard curve. After all precipitation tends to cease, the white crystals are then collected on a buchner funnel by suction filtration. After one week, the isolation of the eugenol actually takes place. If the melting point of the purified trimyristin was done before it was completely dry what would be the effect on the melting point and why? The purity is represented in the melting points of the products. The evaporation of the tert-butyl ether was an interesting process.
Or, you can find the. Nevertheless, one must keep in mind the possibility of extracting compounds from the nutmeg oil in case nutmeg oil faces any severe marketing problems in the near future. Some of its esters such as butyrate is used for making artificial atter of rose. The crude trimyristin was recrystallized once to yield 40% of product and recrystallized a second time to yield 10% of pure product. In organic chem, there are different types of experiments: technique and preparative. Assume that the amount of trimyristin in nutmeg is 20% by weight. If the essential oil is removed by steam distillation prior to extracting the crude fixed oil, then the fixed oil of nutmeg will contain only trace amounts of essential oil.
Ground nutmeg seeds are extracted with methyl ether and the resulting solid recrystallized from acetone and to yield pure trimyristin. In this experiment cyclohexanol is dehydrated to prepare cyclohexene while using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Extraction of Trimyristin from Nutmeg Lab 1. These products typically occur in mixtures of many different compounds, so to obtain a particular natural product it is necessary to separate it from all of the other compounds present. This terpene is used as a solvent and also a wetting and dispersing agent. Caffeine belongs to the family of heterocyclic compounds known as purines. After the steps were completed, we measured the product and the percentage yield and compare the actual yield with the theoretic yield.
Most reactions produce a crude mixture of undesired reagent, byproducts, as well as the desired product. Eugenol is also used as a dental analgesic. Afterwards we used acetone-petroleum ether for recrystallization and the vacuum apparatus for filtration to obtain pure caffeine. If the carboxylic acid portion of the fat contains no alkene groups, the fat is said to be saturated. The crystals were then air dried and placed on a piece of filter paper. Most reactions produce a crude mixture of undesired reagent, byproducts, as well as the desired product. The crystals came out to be 0.
In chemistry, extraction is the physical process by which a compound or mixture of compounds is transferred from one phase into another. Attach a reflux and allow the mixture to reflex for 1 hour with heating source. Components of the Fixed Oil Power and Salway's of the fixed oil which was obtained from nutmeg without prior removal of the essential oil gave the following components and their relative abundance in the fixed oil. There are two methods by which the hydrolysis process can be accomplished: 1 saponification and 2 direct splitting. As the purity of the product increased through successive recrystallizations, the amount of product obtained decreased as the mass of the impurities or other compounds were lost.
The purity can be checked either by taking the melting point or performing a gas- chromatography analysis. Isolation of Eugenol from Cloves Abstract The experiment conducted, isolation of eugenol from cloves, is the extraction of the essential oil. The solvent is removed by simple distillation and the crude yellow trimyristin is collected and placed into an erlenmeyer flask. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Research is an ongoing process. I clamped this to the ring stand and let it boil for 10 minutes.